DATES OF OUR HELLENIC NATION:
|7000 B.C.||First Stone Age settlements in mainland Greece.|
|2500 B.C.||Bronze Age is effective on mainland and some islands.|
|1550 B.C.||Mycenaean civilization started on mainland Greece.|
|1450 B.C.||Mycenaean culture spreads to islands.|
|1200 B.C.||Disappearance of Mycenaean civilization.|
|1100 B.C.||Dorian movements to the islands and Asia Minor.|
|776 B.C.||First official Olympic Games held in Greece.|
|800-600 B.C.||First Greek city-states appear, Athens and Sparta are among them.|
|545 B.C.||Persian invasion of Asia Minor cities.|
|490 B.C.||Persian incursion and the battle of Marathon.|
|479 B.C.||Persian invasion of mainland Greece.|
|430-404 B.C.||War between Athens and Sparta ends in Spartan victory.|
|359 B.C.||Philip II became the king of Macedonia.|
|336 B.C.||After Philip II, Alexander the Great became the king of Macedonia.|
|0-300 A.D.||Romans rule Greece.|
|324 A.D.||Emperor Constantine established the Byzantium and Constantinople became the capital.|
|529 A.D.||Non-Christian schools of philosophy in Athens were forced to close.|
|650 A.D.||Invasion of Greece by Slavic tribes.|
|800 A.D.||Byzantium established the control over Greece again.|
|1200 A.D.||Latin - Venetian crusaders took control of Greece.|
|1260 A.D.||Byzantium reclaimed the control over Greece.|
|1430 A.D.||Ottomans conquered Thessaloniki.|
|1453 A.D.||Ottomans conquered Constantinople. This marks the end of Byzantium.|
|1460 A.D.||Ottomans took Mistra.|
|1522 A.D.||Ottomans conquered Rhodes.|
|1566 A.D.||Ottomans took Chios and Naxos.|
|1577 A.D.||Samos taken by Ottomans|
|1669 A.D.||Ottomans conquered whole Crete.|
|1685-1715||Venetians occupied Peloponnese|
|1799-1814||France, Russia and Britain occupied Ionian islands successively.|
|1821-1830||Greece gained independence against Ottomans after the battle of Navarino.|
|1831||President Capodistrias was assassinated.|
|1833||Otto was declared as the king of Greece by Russia, France and Britain.|
|1864||Britain gave the control of Corfu and Ionian islands to Greece.|
|1881||Ottomans surrendered Thessaly to Greece.|
|1912||First Balkan war and Greece claimed Thessaloniki, Ioanina and Chios.|
|1913||Second Balkan war. After Bulgarian attacks, Greece gains Crete, Lesbos and Ikaria.|
|1914||World War I. Divisions in Greece and finally joining the war on the side of Allied forces.|
|1919||Britain and France convinced Greece to annex the land at Smyrna (Izmir) in Turkey.|
|1919-1923||After the collapse of Ottoman Empire, the existing conditions triggered a war between Greece and newly formed Turkey. Greece lost the war and Greek population in Anatolia was exchanged with Turkish or Muslim population in Greece.|
|1936||After a long period of political chaos, General Metaxas became dictator.|
|1939||After the invasion of Albania, Italy demanded access to Greek ports. Metaxas refused (28th October "Ochi Day").|
|1941||World War II and the German invasion.|
|1944||After 3 years of German occupation, British troops took the county back from Germans.|
|1945-1949||Civil war between royalists and communists.|
|1967||Military junta took control of political power.|
|1973||Pro-democracy movement mainly led by students was crushed by fascist junta and a large number of students were brutally killed.|
|1974||Military junta supported a right-wing Greek coup in Cyprus. This led to Turkey's intervention to the island and finally junta collapsed|
|1975-2005||Socialist PASOK and right-wing New Democracy Party maintain the democratic process uninterruptedly since then.|
|The period from 1430 to 1821
The early period of Turkish domination in Macedonia (1430-1700), as in other regions of the Ottoman Empire, was not marked by rapid change. With the passage of time, the land regime shifted to the benefit of large landowners.
Macedonian manufacturing and mining, which had shown such promise in the 16th century, were gradually crushed under the weight of imported Western European industrial products over the next two hundred years.
The population vacuum created by the Ottoman conquest began to be filled by immigrants of various religions and origins. At the same time, many Christians began to emigrate, since the economic conditions were more favorable to retail businesses than to investments. Their earnings contributed to the creation in the 18th century of a prosperous and educated class, which was leavened with Greek learning and yearned for the reinstatement of Greek independence.
In the mountains of Macedonia generations of armatoles and occasional clefts (bands of guerrilla type warriors) formulated their own fighting tradition against the Muslim conquerors, although they did not always have a clear political motive.
The period from 1821 to 1870
The failure of the Revolution of 1821-1822 in northern Greece was a milestone in the history of Macedonia. For more than 50 years social developments there were severed from those of southern Greece, where a new nation was being built, in theory and in reality.
The Greek political leadership considered Macedonia an indisputable part of their historic heritage. In practice, however, they gave priority to backing the burgeoning liberation movements in the Ottoman provinces of Thessaly and Epirus, which were closer to the Greek kingdom, and to Crete. Nevertheless, the Macedonian refugees and fighters who had sought sanctuary in Athens never ceased to exert pressure to change the fate of their own homeland.
In Macedonia itself, at least until the reforms of 1856 (Hatt-i-Humayun), society remained rooted in tradition, maintaining closer ties with the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople than with the new Greek state. But for the first time the economy was receptive to serious challenges to join the international market. And the rural population was becoming denser, as waves of refugees descended upon the hinterland from all directions.
The period from 1870 to 1913
At this time, the dynamic introduction of European capital into Macedonia (in a quest for raw materials and remunerative investments) unavoidably linked European economic interests with the preservation of Ottoman domination, clashing with the emerging nationalist movements.
Meanwhile, the strengthening of nationalist sentiments in Macedonia, first Greek and then Bulgarian, was unshakably connected with social and demographic change and with the growing prosperity of Macedonia's farming community, which Europe itself desired as a market for her products.