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7000 B.C. First Stone Age settlements in mainland Greece.
2500 B.C. Bronze Age is effective on mainland and some islands.
1550 B.C. Mycenaean civilization started on mainland Greece.
1450 B.C. Mycenaean culture spreads to islands.
1200 B.C. Disappearance of Mycenaean civilization.
1100 B.C. Dorian movements to the islands and Asia Minor.
776 B.C. First official Olympic Games held in Greece.
800-600 B.C. First Greek city-states appear, Athens and Sparta are among them.
545 B.C. Persian invasion of Asia Minor cities.
490 B.C. Persian incursion and the battle of Marathon.
479 B.C. Persian invasion of mainland Greece.
430-404 B.C. War between Athens and Sparta ends in Spartan victory.
359 B.C. Philip II became the king of Macedonia.
336 B.C. After Philip II, Alexander the Great became the king of Macedonia.
0-300 A.D. Romans rule Greece.
324 A.D. Emperor Constantine established the Byzantium and Constantinople became the capital.
529 A.D. Non-Christian schools of philosophy in Athens were forced to close.
650 A.D. Invasion of Greece by Slavic tribes.
800 A.D. Byzantium established the control over Greece again.
1200 A.D. Latin - Venetian crusaders took control of Greece.
1260 A.D. Byzantium reclaimed the control over Greece.
1430 A.D. Ottomans conquered Thessaloniki.
1453 A.D. Ottomans conquered Constantinople. This marks the end of Byzantium.
1460 A.D. Ottomans took Mistra.
1522 A.D. Ottomans conquered Rhodes.
1566 A.D. Ottomans took Chios and Naxos.
1577 A.D. Samos taken by Ottomans
1669 A.D. Ottomans conquered whole Crete.
1685-1715 Venetians occupied Peloponnese
1799-1814 France, Russia and Britain occupied Ionian islands successively.
1821-1830 Greece gained independence against Ottomans after the battle of Navarino.
1831 President Capodistrias was assassinated.
1833 Otto was declared as the king of Greece by Russia, France and Britain.
1864 Britain gave the control of Corfu and Ionian islands to Greece.
1881 Ottomans surrendered Thessaly to Greece.
1912 First Balkan war and Greece claimed Thessaloniki, Ioanina and Chios.
1913 Second Balkan war. After Bulgarian attacks, Greece gains Crete, Lesbos and Ikaria.
1914 World War I. Divisions in Greece and finally joining the war on the side of Allied forces.
1919 Britain and France convinced Greece to annex the land at Smyrna (Izmir) in Turkey.
1919-1923 After the collapse of Ottoman Empire, the existing conditions triggered a war between Greece and newly formed Turkey. Greece lost the war and Greek population in Anatolia was exchanged with Turkish or Muslim population in Greece.
1936 After a long period of political chaos, General Metaxas became dictator.
1939 After the invasion of Albania, Italy demanded access to Greek ports. Metaxas refused (28th October "Ochi Day").
1941 World War II and the German invasion.
1944 After 3 years of German occupation, British troops took the county back from Germans.
1945-1949 Civil war between royalists and communists.
1967 Military junta took control of political power.
1973 Pro-democracy movement mainly led by students was crushed by fascist junta and a large number of students were brutally killed.
1974 Military junta supported a right-wing Greek coup in Cyprus. This led to Turkey's intervention to the island and finally junta collapsed
1975-2005 Socialist PASOK and right-wing New Democracy Party maintain the democratic process uninterruptedly since then.
The period from 1430 to 1821

Thessaloniki from the sea
Engraving by Ol. Dapper, 1688


The early period of Turkish domination in Macedonia (1430-1700), as in other regions of the Ottoman Empire, was not marked by rapid change. With the passage of time, the land regime shifted to the benefit of large landowners.

Macedonian manufacturing and mining, which had shown such promise in the 16th century, were gradually crushed under the weight of imported Western European industrial products over the next two hundred years.

The population vacuum created by the Ottoman conquest began to be filled by immigrants of various religions and origins. At the same time, many Christians began to emigrate, since the economic conditions were more favorable to retail businesses than to investments. Their earnings contributed to the creation in the 18th century of a prosperous and educated class, which was leavened with Greek learning and yearned for the reinstatement of Greek independence.

In the mountains of Macedonia generations of armatoles and occasional clefts (bands of guerrilla type warriors) formulated their own fighting tradition against the Muslim conquerors, although they did not always have a clear political motive.

The period from 1821 to 1870

Greek 'klephts-armatoloi'
Drawing, 1830-1870


The failure of the Revolution of 1821-1822 in northern Greece was a milestone in the history of Macedonia. For more than 50 years social developments there were severed from those of southern Greece, where a new nation was being built, in theory and in reality.

The Greek political leadership considered Macedonia an indisputable part of their historic heritage. In practice, however, they gave priority to backing the burgeoning liberation movements in the Ottoman provinces of Thessaly and Epirus, which were closer to the Greek kingdom, and to Crete. Nevertheless, the Macedonian refugees and fighters who had sought sanctuary in Athens never ceased to exert pressure to change the fate of their own homeland.

In Macedonia itself, at least until the reforms of 1856 (Hatt-i-Humayun), society remained rooted in tradition, maintaining closer ties with the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople than with the new Greek state. But for the first time the economy was receptive to serious challenges to join the international market. And the rural population was becoming denser, as waves of refugees descended upon the hinterland from all directions.


The period from 1870 to 1913

From the founding of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870) up until the Balkan Wars (1912-13), the Eastern Question went into its last and most intricate phase. The issue of who was to inherit the Ottoman Empire's European provinces was virtually identical with the fate of Macedonia. In addition to Russia and Austria, the old contenders for the area, the newly formed Balkan states of Bulgaria and Serbia vociferously claimed from Greece what she considered to be her historic heritage.


Greek partisans being supplied at Roumlouki

At this time, the dynamic introduction of European capital into Macedonia (in a quest for raw materials and remunerative investments) unavoidably linked European economic interests with the preservation of Ottoman domination, clashing with the emerging nationalist movements.

Meanwhile, the strengthening of nationalist sentiments in Macedonia, first Greek and then Bulgarian, was unshakably connected with social and demographic change and with the growing prosperity of Macedonia's farming community, which Europe itself desired as a market for her products.


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