Dean C. Lomis, Ph.D.
In 1944, with the predominance of the
Communist Party of Yugoslavia, Tito, for reasons of political expediency and
given his ambitions for territorial expansion south toward warm water ports
in the Mediterranean, arbitrarily renamed the area — known until then as South
Serbia — to the "Socialist Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia" and
its inhabitants "Macedonians."
Tito's decision was also a consequence of the
1921 Moscow resolve by Comintern and the Balkan communist parties to pursue
autonomy for Macedonia, and to include this most strategic region of the Balkans
into the Communist camp.
After 1944, with the Yugoslavian Communist
Party initiative, four non-existent constitutive elements of the created
pseudo-Macedonia nation were manufactured:
Authority ("Macedonian" Government and Parliament).
Language (in 1944, the Slavic dialect of the Bulgarian language spoken in
the Skopje area was named "Macedonian Language," and because as a
dialect it lacked linguistic characteristics — syntax, orthography and grammar
— a special committee of linguists was formed and assigned the project of
transforming the dialect into a language).
In 1968, the atheist Communist Party established only in Skopje the
autocephalous "Macedonian Church" which is not recognized by any
Orthodox Patriarch ate, including the Serbian, and nor even by the Vatican.
In 1969, the three-volume "History of the Macedonian Nation"
was published and circulated self-appropriating all of Macedonia's events and
personalities of the past four thousand years, shamelessly forging the history
of the glorious fatherland of Aristotle and Alexander the Great.
Macedonia and Macedonians are Greek terms and
no one else but the Greeks ever applied them or has the right to apply them. A
Macedonian "nation" neither existed ever in the past nor does it exist
today. Macedonians were Greeks, they believed in the same gods, they used the
same tongue — Greek, and they shared with other Greeks the same sacred vows to
The historical and the political fraud of the
Skopjans is revealed in at least four ways:
I. Historical Background
The Slavs arrived in the Balkans during the 6th Century, A.D. This is a
historical fact which is also admitted by Skopje's ex-Nazi, former Communist and
Tito protégé, and now new super-nationalist President Kiro Gligorov (David
Binder, The New York Times, January 30, 1992 & Marlise Simons, The Νew York Times, February 3, 1992).
In the 9th Century, two Greek brothers and monks, Methodius and Cyril (Methodios
and Kyrillos) illuminated them on Orthodoxy and taught them their Slavic
language. Cyril is credited with inventing the Cyrillic alphabet, thereby
providing a tool for the Slavs to learn to write their spoken tongue.
Accordingly, the Slavs cannot and do not have any historical bond before
the 6th Century, A.D,, nor any political bond prior to the 9th Century. The
Macedonians existed in Greece over three millennia before.
In 1913 the borders between Greece and Serbia were defined on the basis
of the advances of the armies of the two nations during the first Balkan war.
The borders between Greece and Bulgaria were defined at the Treaty of
Bucharest. Since then the borders of the three nations have remained the same.
Macedonia, a region mostly of Greece since ancient times, was divided
into three — perhaps even four — parts, with Greece keeping the largest
portion of almost 55%. Yugoslavia received about 30%, Bulgaria almost 15%, and a
small percentage eventually ended up in Albania. The Greek people on the portion
of the Macedonian part in Greece have been there from the very beginning, over
thirty -five or more centuries before the Slavs arrived. The language spoken in
the Greek region is Greek — from ancient tines, whereas the language of the
Yugoslavia portion is a Slavic dialect of Bulgarian (Marlise Simons, The New
York Times, February 3, 1992). As a matter of fact, the portion of Macedonia
in Yugoslavia "...was part of the Eastern Branch of the Roman Empire. The
people who ruled over Serbia spoke Greek. Constantinople was their headquarters.
Their main trade was to the South and East" (Joseph C. Harsch, The
Christian Science Monitor, January 29, 1992). Hence, where do the Skopjans
come from? If, as the historical record clearly indicates, and Mr. Gligorov
agrees, that the Slavs came to the northern Macedonia area in the 6th Century,
A.D., they are Slavs and, therefore, not Macedonians, who were Greeks. If, on
the other hand, they had been there before, from the time of Alexander and
earlier — which they were not, both by historical chronicles and by their own
acceptance — then they are Greeks, since Alexander himself acknowledged his
Hellenic birth and the times before him stand proof positive of their Greekness!
As all the ancient Greek city-states ceased to exist with the prevalence
of the Romans in 168, B.C., so did Macedonia. Since then, Macedonia, like all
the other Greek regions, has remained a geographical area.
As all ancient Greek city-states
ceased to exist with the prevalence of the Romans in 168, B.C., so did
Macedonia. Since then, Macedonia like all the other Greek regions, has remained
a geographical area.
During the centuries of Turkish rule, the occupied lands were divided
into localities, each identified after the major city of the area. This was due
to Turkish forbiddance of Greek or historical names. Thusly, writers, freedom
fighters, and others became known as Righas Ferraios, Veniamin of Lesvos,
Constantine Dosios Macedonian, Christopher Perraivos of Thessaly, Dominic
Theotokopoulos as El Greco, and organizations as Macedonian Educational
Association of Serres, Macedonian Association Alexander the Great, etc.
The portions of ancient Macedonia which were inhabited primarily by
Greeks but were captured by the Serbs and the Bulgarians, eventually were
incorporated into Serbia and Bulgaria respectively. The portion which was freed
by the Greek army is today's "Greek" Macedonia. All the world's maps
published between 1913 and 1944 refer to Macedonia only as Greek, for all knew
and recognized Macedonia as part of Greece.
After 1944, the Communists manufactured a Macedonia in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria,
and sustained their argument in the division perpetrated by the Romans for their
own security in their time. During the reign of Philip II, the Greek city-state
of Macedonia contained most of modern-day Bulgaria. However, when the Bulgarians
conquered that territory they incorporated it into the Bulgarian nation.
In 1919 Serbia incorporated Croatia and
Slovenia in establishing the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians, known as
"Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaka." If a "Macedonian
nation" existed, then it would have been the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats,
Slovenes and Macedonians. The Kingdom was dissolved by the Germans in 1941. If,
therefore, World War II had not occurred or, if after the War, the Communist
Party had not ruled there would not have been a Macedonia issue today.
The term "Macedonia" was not- given only to the portion of the
area which belonged to ancient Greece but to the entire region, including Skopje,
which was not part of ancient Macedonia. Thus, as regional inhabitants, all the
Bulgarians and the Greeks in their respective regions, and the Albanians and the
Serbs in South Serbia, were called Macedonians — as regional
inhabitants. Today, there is a large Albanian minority in this region —
perhaps as many as 800,000 — who are protesting in being called Macedonian
"citizens" rather than as Macedonians in the regional sense.
The Skopjans are attempting to make an issue out of a Slavo-Bulgarian
dialect into a so-called "Macedonian language." There never was a
"Macedonian" language. The ancient Macedonians, being Greek, spoke
Greek. All their writings — and they are written in stone,
literally — attest to the Greekness of their language. As an excuse, the
Skopjans are now changing their falsified story to yet another untruth that
Alexander the Great had been "Hellenized." This is not the case.
Alexander's father, and their predecessors, all carried Creek names and
left us their "Greek" language written in stone. For example:
Aristotle (Aristotelis) means "excellent ending"; Alexander (Alexandros)
means "defending man"; Philip (Philippos) means "admirer of
horses.." etc. In fact, the
very terms of the inhabitants and of the region itself are Greek: Macedonian (Makedon)
means "tall," and Macedonia (Makedonia) means "the land of the
tall," including trees, for the Macedonian region is blessed with forests
with high trees.
The so-called "Macedonian language" — the really
Slavophone dialect — is a mixture of idiomatic expressions derived from Greek,
Albanian, Turkish, Slavic, some Latin (remnants of the Romans), and plenty of
Bulgarian. The latter influence is the reason that linguists identify it mostly
as a "Bulgarian dialect."
History shows how this dialect came about. The region of northern
Macedonia, including the rest of South Serbia, was the crossroad of many armies
and traders from the Romans to the Turks. The original Greek inhabitants were
conquered by the Romans. Then the Slavs moved in during the 6th Century, A.D.
The Byzantines who were the next rulers used Greek. The Bulgars, who traded
between the area and Byzantium, had enormous influence on the spoken tongue.
Finally, the Turkish occupation of nearly five centuries also had considerable
influence on the spoken word. In
addition, the existence of Greeks, Slavs, Turks, Bulgars, and Albanians
cohabiting the area contributed significantly to the development of this
"dialect^." Consequently, therefore, if the Skopjans wish to call this
"dialect" a language — which truly it is not — they must give it a
proper local name: Vardarian, Skopjan, Banovinan, or whatever reflects the true
identity of the area.
It is also significant to consider the exchange of populations that took
place during certain periods. Between 1919 and 1936 there was an exchange of
populations between Greece and Bulgaria. The exchange brought 46,000 Greeks from
Bulgaria to Greece, while 96,000 Bulgarians from Greece went to Bulgaria. In
addition, the Turks departed from the region of Macedonia left to Greece. On the
other hand, Serbia did not exchange populations in South Serbia with Bulgaria.
It is for this reason, therefore, that problems have existed between the
two nations Serbia and Bulgaria — and one of the reasons that influenced Tito
to rename in 1944 South Serbia to the Socialist Yugoslavian Republic of
Macedonia, in order to end Bulgarian expansion aims toward that territory.
Incidentally, the exchange of populations during the period was monitored by the
League of Nations, after which Henry Morgenthau, the U.S. Ambassador to Turkey
during the course of the Armenian Genocide by the Turks, who was the first
chairman of the Refugee Resettlement Commission of the League of Nations in
Greece, wrote in his 1929-published book, “I_was Sent to Athens”:
"Soon after Athens had reached the height of its glory under Pericles in
the Fifth Century, B.C., and had started on its decline, the rise of Macedon
under Philip carried Greek influence into new regions..." Cp.9); and
"When I crossed into Macedonia I realized that this was the soil from which
Philip of Macedon had gone East to conquer Thrace and from which Alexander the
Great had carried Greek civilization across Asia Minor, Persia, the Indus river
to the gates of Delhi, leaving behind Greek settlements that had colored the
life of the Near East for two thousand years..." (p.92).
[For the above, I thank Dr. Van Coufoudakis of
Indiana University/Purdue University for making them available to me.]
II. Certain Irrefutable Rudiments of the "Greekness"
of the Macedonians
The ancient Greeks had placed the habitat of their gods on Mount Olympus,
in Macedonia. It would have been totally inconceivable for the Greeks to have
placed the habitat of their gods in a non-Greek, "barbarian"
The ancient Greeks also placed the habitat of the nine Muses in Osa,
another Macedonian mountain, in the province of Pieria.
Hesiod, the Greek poet of Boeotia, refers that the Macedonia son of Zeus
and Pandora was the forefather of the Macedonian people.
The Greek folk hero Herakles (Hercules), son of Zeus, was the head of the
"Macedonia therefore is Greece," wrote Strabo, the Pontus-born
Roman-era historian and geographer who lived circa 68, B.C. - 19, A.D.
The Macedonians were members of the Council of Delphi, and only Greek
states were eligible and accepted for membership.
At least ten Macedonians won in as many Olympic Games in which, as it is
known, only Greeks could compete.
According to Herodotus, the Father of history, the Macedonian king
Alexander I (grandfather of Alexander the Great), in registering with the
Olympic committee to participate in the games, registered as a descendant of
Hercules, son of Zeus.
Three ancient Greek theaters still exist in Macedonia, those of Dion,
Philippi, and Vergina. The ancient Greek playwright Euripides wrote the tragedy
"Bachaee" in Pella, a play with a Macedonian theme, which premiered in Dion. Euripides died and was buried in Macedonia.
It should he noted that in the ancient world only the Greeks had
theaters, until the arrival of the Romans who copied the Greeks.
III. Holy Scriptures
A. Old Testament
"Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon, after his victory came out of
the land of Chitim and crushed Darius, the king of the Persians and the Medes,
and reigned in his place after he had already become ruler [king] of
Greece" (Maccabees, 1:1.1
"After he [Alexander] fell sick and perceived he was dying, he
summoned his most honored officers and companions from his youth, and divided
his kingdom while still alive" (Maccabees 1:1.5).
"Antiochus...became king in the one hundred and thirty-seventh year
of the kingdom of the Greeks" [Seleucids of Macedonia] (Maccabees, 1:1.10).
"And the he-goat is the king of Greece [Alexander]; and the great
horn between his eyes is the first king. As for his horn that was broken, in
place of which four others arose, four nations shall rise from his nation, but
not with his powers: (Daniel, 8:1-22).
Hippolytus, Bishop of Rome from 217 to 222, A.D. wrote a commentary on
the text of Daniel's prophesy, which has been preserved in Greek, Iberian and
Slavonic (Nicolaos K. Martis, The_Falsification_of Macedonian History, P.
61). He wrote: "And the he-goat coming from the west he calls Alexander of
Macedon king of the Greeks" (Hippolytus, Commentary on the Prophet
Daniel 1, p. 26).
B. New Testament
"...they came to Thessalonica, where was a synagogue of the Jews.
And Paul...went in...and some of them were persuaded...as did a great many of
the devout Greeks..." (Acts, 17:1-4).
"many of them therefore believed, with not a few Greek women of high
standing as well as men" (acts, 17:12).
IV. The "Sun of Vergina"
The 16-pointed star "Sun of Vergina"
discovered in recent excavations as the symbol of the royal Macedonian dynasty
of ancient Greece, and which is now being claimed as their own by the Skopjans,
was widely used in Attica during the classical period, long before its adoption
by the Macedonian royal house. The star, identical with the one decorating the
larnax discovered in the tomb of Philip II of Macedonia, father of Alexander the
Great, at Vergina in Northern Greece, has been found as one of the elements of
decoration on at least four temples of the classical era, including two on the
Acropolis of Athens. The same symbol can also be seen on a 4th Century, B.C. urn
on display at the Museum of Naples in Italy. It was found in Carnossa, Italy and
depicts a female form inscribed with the word "Hellas" and flanked by
the figures of Zeus and Athena.
An interesting fact came to light recently
regarding the "Sun of Vergina" being adopted as the flag symbol by Skopje.
In the late forties, after Tito proclaimed
South Serbia "the Socialist Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia," the
new "republic" had three symbols from which to select for its new flag
— the Albanian eagle, the Bulgarian lion, and the "star [not
"sun"] of Vergina" which it finally chose. Since the
"star" was not the "sun" that we know today — for it was
not excavated until 1977, it was an ordinary sun, half-risen from behind a
mountain, surrounded by a wreath centered by a snail five-pointed star, an
enormous difference from the "Sun of Vergina" that Professor Manolis
Andronicos excavated sixteen years ago.
It is also important to look more deeply into the
self-evident falsehoods created by the Skopjians which overturn the main
foundations of their communist-inspired and communist-invented myth:
that Alexander the Great, his father Philip, and their ancestors were
"Macedonian" and not Greek! If
this logic were to be accepted as fact, there were no Greeks then and there are
no Greeks now, for Leonidas was Lacaedemonian, Pericles was Attican, Epaminondas
was Boeotian, Pyrrhus was Epirotan, Homer was Chian (unless we take the version
of the late Turkish President Turgut Ozal who, in his book: Turkey in Europe,
wrote that Homer was a Turk, as well as Aristotle), and so on, including Dominic(os) Theotokopoulos who signed his great art as "El Greco."
Therefore, according to the Slavic Skopjians revisionist
"historians," none of the "Greeks" should be considered
"Greeks." This entire distortion of history is refuted, however, by
what has been aforementioned, namely: historical documents, myriads of
irrefutable rudiments, the Holy Scriptures (including the Koran which refers to
Alexander the Great as the king of the Greeks), and archaeological and preserved
monuments all written in stone, AND STONES DON"T LIE!
propounds itself as the cradle of Slavic Orthodoxy and connects the Church with
the "Macedonians" (not the Greeks) through the Greek monks Methodius
and Cyril. This claim is refuted by Pope John Paul's 1990 circular in which he
declared the two "Greek" brothers monks "Heavenly protectors of
Skopjians allege that Samuel was "Macedonian," and that during his
reign from 1000 to 1018, A.D. in Achris he founded the "first Macedonian
nation." Samuel, however, was Bulgarian.
It was for this reason, therefore, that Emperor Basil II, who was
descended from the then-reigning Macedonian dynasty, when he was victorious over
Samuel's forces was named "Voulgaroktonos" (Bulgar-slayer) and not
"Makedonoktonos" (Macedonian-slayer). In addition, an inscription written in an old Bulgarian
language, dated 1017, A.D., discovered by a Yugoslavian archaeologist In
Montenegro, makes reference that Samuel presented himself to be of Bulgarian
claim the 1902-03 insurrections as the national Macedonian uprising. This is
refuted by the reports of the six foreign consuls, the dispatches of the foreign
journalists stationed in the area at the time, and the records of historians all
of whom referred to these disturbances as local uprisings of
"Bulgarians" known as "komitazes." Dr. Wayne Vucinich,
former professor of history at Stanford University and author of Serbia
Between East and West, wrote in 1960: "...in 1902, two Bulgarian
officers precipitated an uprising in the vicinity of Bitolj...and in August...an
insurrection...was suppressed within two months."
Also of significance is the Skopjians’
deception of the Vatican in 1986 when they exhibited at the Vatican Museum Greek
Byzantine icons as "Macedonian." This was strongly denounced by the
Archbishop of Athens, resulting in an immediate Vatican statement (a) not
recognizing the Church of Skopje, and (b) that "it was deceived" by
the Skopjians. Since then, Pope
John Paul has taken several measures against the Skopjians, including his 1989
decision to stop addressing his Christmas and Easter messages also in the
so-called "Macedonian" language. This particular action constitutes
the most significant Catholic condemnation to the non-existence of a
There is also the issue of Greek inscriptions.
In all of antiquity, in all of Macedonia, there never was an existence of
any inscription of the so-called "Macedonian language," anywhere.
This, of course, is clearly evident from the fact that the Slavs of northern
Macedonia did not arrive there until the 6th Century, A.D., and their Slavic
Bulgarian dialect did not even have a written form until Cyril devised an
alphabet for them in the 9th Century. As Dr. Guliano Bonfante, former professor
of romance languages at Princeton University, wrote in 1960: "The language
now spoken as Macedonian is a Bulgarian dialect.
It has no connection with the ancient Macedonian [Greek] except for the
fact it is spoken in the same region."
All the historical documents — from
Herodotus and Plutach to the Old and New Testaments, and from other historians
after the House of Philip Dynasty — have shown nothing other than the Hellenic
period of nearly three centuries from Philip, through Alexander the Great, to
Alexander's successors. It should
be emphasized that it was due to the Macedonians that the Greek language —
their own indigenous language — and Greek civilization were spread throughout
the known world of the time, and influenced the Old Testament to be translated
into Greek and the New Testament to be written in Greek. Furthermore, Greek was
the language that was used to transmit Christianity throughout the
Greek-speaking world of which Macedonia was an integral part.
An excellent example is Alexandria in Egypt,
where the Macedonian Ptolemies established first their rule and then their
influence for seven centuries, and where the laboratory sciences (anatomy,
astronomy, biology, chemistry[alchemy], geography, mathematics, physics,
zoology, etc.) advanced. It was in Alexandria also where the Theological Academy
functioned during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, A.D., and where the Greco-Christian
civilization laid its early foundations. Throughout the period, the Macedonian
Ptolemies used nothing but Greek, for they knew no other language since Greek
was their native tongue. Thus, the internationalism of Hellenism and the
universality of Christianity, which influenced so decisively the Romans, the
Byzantines, the Renaissance, and the contemporary world of today, are the
results of the works and successes of Alexander the Great and his successors.
It is also necessary to mention the German
invasion of Greece on April 6, 1941, during World War II. The attack came from
the Bulgarian region against the Greek defense line in Macedonia, and after
Turkey abrogated its bilateral defense treaty with Greece, in agreement with
Germany, only hours before the German invasion. The battle of Macedonia was
fought by the Greeks only and so heroically that it surprised even Hitler
himself. In central Macedonia, the fighters were above all Greeks, with few
units of Australians, Britons, and New Zealanders. Contrarily, when the Germans
entered Skopje — the capital of the then-South Serbia province of Yugoslavia
— after only a three-day German military campaign, the German army was
received as liberators with thousands of Bulgarian flags flying. As Dr. Vucinich
wrote in 1960: "During World War II...the followers of IMRO [Internal
Macedonian Revolutionary Organization]...were supported financially and
politically by Fascist Italy, Hungary, Germany, and Bulgaria...At the end of
World War II, the control of [northern] Macedonia passed to the Yugoslavian
Communist Party, and became a new source of trouble in the Balkans. It was from
[Tito's created Socialist Yugoslavian Republic of] Macedonia that Communists
organized [their] activity against Greece in 1947 and 1948." The Greek
nation paid a very heavy price to defend the homeland: 685,000 homes destroyed,
100,000 of its people killed, and 29,000 of its children abducted into the
"Socialist Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia" to be converted for
their eventual return to Greece as Communists and separatists.
Last, but certainly not least, there is also
the significant "Circular Airgram" (868.014) of 26 December 1944 by
then-Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, in immediate response to Tito's
pronouncement of a "Macedonian nation," which reads as follows:
"The Department has noted with
considerable apprehension increasing propaganda rumors and semi-official
statements in favor of an autonomous Macedonia, emanating principally from
Bulgaria, but also from Yugoslav Partisan and other sources, with the
implication that Greek territory would be included in the projected state.
"This Government considers talk of Macedonian "nation,"
Macedonian "Fatherland," or Macedonian "national
consciousness" to be unjustified demagoguery representing no ethnic or
political reality, and sees in its present revival a possible cloak of
aggressive intentions against Greece."1
This "Circular" has established America's foreign policy
regarding the pseudo-Macedonian issue. Any diversion from that policy would be
contrary to America's credibility to its commitment(s).
In the final analysis, U.S. recognition of the pseudo state would be
tantamount to a Communist victory after the end of the Cold War on an issue that
our nation opposed them, during the Cold War.
conclusion, in view of all the above, it is absurd that after a recorded history
of some five millennia the Greeks have to prove to the world all over again that
"Macedonia therefore is Greece." The preposterous Skopje theories of
the existence of a "Macedonian nation," of a "Macedonian
language," and of a "Macedonian minority," are not only contrary
to the historical facts, but also offensive not only to the Greeks but also to
every civilized human being!