TIMELINE

- c. l950 or c. 1600 BC Alternative dates for the arrival of Greek tribes into the "Greek" peninsula from Epirus and west Macedonia (known as the "Proto-Greek" area).

- c. 580 - 1120 BC  "Mycenaean" culture established in southern and island Greece.

- c. 1100's BC  "Dorian Greeks invade Greek peninsula a generation after "Trojan War" bringing an end to Mycenacan civilization. "Dark Ages" ensue.

 - 776 BC  First recorded Olympic games. Homer's epic composed in the previous century. Earliest Greek colonies founded in south Italy and Black Sea coast. City-states take shape.

 - 650 BC  Foundation of Macedonian kingdom by Perdikkas.

- c. 550 - 480 BC  Expansion of the Macedonian kingdom from its core territories in Pieria and Bottiaea.

- 490 BC; 479 - 480 BC Persian Wars: Greek forces twice defeat invading Persians

- 431 - 404 BC The Peloponnesian War between Athenian and Spartan alliances resulting in weakening of both states and in an eventual leveling of power in Greece.

- c.405 BC The capital of Macedonian kingdom is moved from Aegae to Pella.

- 359 - 336 BC Reign of Philip II. Enlargement of Macedonian kingdom and consolidation of its power. Increasing intervention in afairs of Greek city - states. Confrontation with Athens. Defeat of combined Athenian and Boetian force at Chaeronea (338 BC). Creation of Hellenic League. Philip plans panhellenic crusade against Persia under Macedonian leadership.

- 336 - 323 BC Reign of Alexander the Great. Alexander undertakes conquest of Persia as hegemon (leader) of the Greeks. The Macedonian Empire reaches India.

- 322 - 100's BC The "Hellenistic Age". After Alexander's death the states of his successors compete for predominance. The east attracts many Greek settlers. Greek language and culture is preeminent. Cultural fusion of Hellenism with eastern civilizations. 

- 148-146 BC  Rome annexes the Macedonian kingdom as well as the city-states and leagues of southern Greece.

- 324 AD Constantine the Great moves the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in what was culturally and linguistically the Greek half of the empire. Generally considered the beginning of the "Byzantine" Empire. Christianity begins to take hold.

- 580's  The invasion and large-scale settlement of Slavs in the Balkan peninsula commences following earlier raids (540's). First major Slavic siege of Salonika (586 or 597 AD)

 - 670's  Arrival of Bulgars in present day northern Bulgaria. Establishment of first Bulgarian state in 681.

- 780's  Commencement of the Byzantine Revival. The Byzantine Empire recovers much lost ground in the Balkans. Estahlishment of new military districts (themes) including those of Thessalonica" and "Strymon" in Macedonia.

- 860's The Greek brothers Cyril and Methodius of Salonika commence Byzantine missionary activity amongst the Slavs leading to the conversion of many to Christianity and later to the creation of the Cyrillic alphabet.

- 1018 The Byzantine Emperor Basil II of the "Macedonian" dynasty destroys the Bulgarian Empire of Tsar Samuel based in western Macedonia. The Byzantine military district of Bulgarian is established with its seal in Skopje.

- 1071  Defeat of me Byzantines by the Slejuk Turks at Mantzikert. An ever-increasing number of Turks begin to enter and settle in Asia Minor as a result of this event.

- 1340's Conquest of much of Macedonia by the Serbian tsar Stefan Dushan. Numerous Serbian principalities established in Macedonia after his death.

- 1380's Most of Macedonia conquered hy Ottoman Turks. Serbs defeated at the Battle of Kossovo (1389).  Last Bulgarian kingdom, that of the Shishmans, succumbs to the Ottomans (1393).

1430  Salonika falls to the Turks.

1453   Fall of Constantinople to the Turks the end of the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans subsequently conquer all of the Balkans and much of the Near East.

- 1821 1829     Greek war of independence leads to creation of modem Greek Stale.

- 1870     Foundation of the Bulgarian Exarchate in opposition to Greek Patriarch in Constantinople. Greco- Bulgarian rivalry in Macedonia intensifies.

- 1878   Treaty of San Stefano allocates the major part of Macedonia (excluding Salonika and parts of southern Macedonia) to the newly independent Bulgarian principalities. This treaty was never ratified. Subsequently the Congress of Berlin re-allocates Macedonia to the Turks.

- 893 The Intemal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) is founded and aims at autonomy for Macedonia. The Supreme Macedonian Committee is founded soon after aims at the outright annexation of Macedonia by Bulgaria. Both are Bulgarian organizations.

- 1903 Abortive "Ilinden Uprising" against the Turks by Macedonia's Bulgarians.

- 1904-1908 The "Macedonian Struggle". Greek, Bulgarian (and to a lesser extent Serbian) armed bands in Ottoman-held Macedonia compete for dominance.

- 1912  First Balkan War. Greece, together with its allies Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro defeat the Ottoman Empire and take most of its European domains. Macedonia is largely divided between Greece and Serbia.

- 1913  Second Balkan War. Not satisfied with her gains in the First Balkan War, Bulgaria commences hostilities against Greece and Serbia but is soundly defeated. The Ottomans take the opportunity to regain Adrianople and parts of Thrace. The Romanians occupy pan of the Dobrudja.

- 1915 - 1918  The southern (Salonika) front during World War I runs through Macedonia dividing the Central Powers from the powers of the Entente. Greece joins the Entente in 1917 in opposition to Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.

- 1919-1922  Greek military venture in Asia Minor ends in defeat and catastrophe. Under the terms of the 1923 ''Treaty of Lausanne" Greece and Turkey exchange their alien populations. Over 1,250,000 refugees arrive in Greece during the immediately preceding decade. About half of this number are settled in Greek Macedonia and Thrace.

- 1939 - 1945     World War II. Axis occupation of the Balkans (from 1940). Bulgarians given control of Yugoslav Macedonia and eastern Greek Macedonia.

- 1944  Establishment of the "People's Republic of Mocedonlo" within the framework of Titoist Yugoslavia.

- 1946 - 1949 Greek Civil War. Greek leftist forces defeated with massive westem aid.

- 1951  Recognition of 'Macedonia" as one of three official languages of Yugoslavia.

- 1967     Establishment of the 'Macedonian Orthodox Church" which fails to gain recogntion from other Orthodox bodies.

- 1991 Yugoslavia implodes. The former "Socialist Republic of Macedonia" declares its independence. It is not recognized by most western nations as a consequence of Greek objections to its proposed name.' "Republic of Macedonia". Temporarily recognized as the  "FYROM (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)" while a final resolution is sought. 

 - 1992 The FYROM officially adopts the Sunburst as its national emblem resulting in increased hostility from Greece.

- 1994 Greece enforces a trade embargo against the FYROM in February.

- 1995  Agreement between Greece and the FYROM as a result of which Greece lifts its trade embargo and the FYROM abandons its use of the Stolen Sun and adopts a new flag. Negotiations about the FYROM's final name continues.

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